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Oleander, also known as Nerium oleander L., is both a poisonous shrub and a useful plant. Heart glycosides, which inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase and provide cardiomyocytes an inotropic effect, are abundant in all parts of the oleander plant. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical investigations suggest that purposeful, unintentional, and suicidal oleander ingestion causes acute poisoning. Contrarily, oleander is used in traditional medicine across the globe to cure a variety of illnesses, and multiple evidence-based pre-clinical investigations found that oleander extracts rich in polyphenols had positive effects on immune and metabolic health.