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The oral cavity is a desirable location for drug delivery due to the ease of administration. An efficient physiological removal mechanism of the oral cavity that removes the formulation from the buccal site and reduces the bioavailability of pharmaceuticals is the key challenge for delivery via the buccal route. Although some studies have an in vivo performance, the use of mucoadhesive polymers in buccal medication administration reveals measuring buccal drug penetration and absorption. This review discusses the use of polymers in the production of drug delivery systems (hydrogels, films, and tablets) and presents the outcomes of studies done on how well those systems operate in vivo.