Author(s): Juliana Vallim Jorgetto
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Quality of life assessment is recognized as an important area of scientific knowledge due to its conception of health: satisfaction and well-being in the physical, psychic, socioeconomic and cultural spheres. The use of quality of life assessment tools allows a more objective and clear assessment of the global impact of chronic diseases, such as Diabetes Mellitus. Such an evaluation has the advantage of including subjective aspects that are not normally addressed by other evaluation criteria. Objectives: To verify if there are any gender differences in the quality of life of individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Materials and Methods: The WHOQOL-100 questionnaire (the World Health Organization quality of life assessment instrument) and clinical questionnaires were used to assess quality of life. 192 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were interviewed at the UNIFESP Diabetes Center, equally divided between the sexes, between August 2013 and May 2014. Results: The WHOQOL-100 results showed that the scores of the domains (physical, psychological and psychological). , level of independence, social relations, environment and spiritual aspects) were higher in men than in women, and 18 of the 24 facets were higher in men. Conclusion: Men tend to have higher mean scores than women, both in the field and in the facet, suggesting that women with diabetes have a greater loss of quality of life than men. However, in the overall perception of study participants, overall quality of life and overall health perception were considered to have good quality of life in both sexes.
This is a cross-sectional survey-type study conducted at the Diabetes Center of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) from August 2013 to May 2014, with individuals with type 2 diabetes. The sample consisted of equal number of patients of each sex and the calculation of the sample size for comparison of proportions, taking into account a 95% confidence interval and a 10% error, was 96 individuals for both male and female.
Individuals were identified at the time of their scheduled appointment when they were invited to participate in the study. When they accepted and fulfilled the inclusion criteria (individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, with more than one year of diagnosis of the disease, of both sexes, in the age group of 30 to 80 years, attended regularly in the Diabetes Center of the Federal University of São Paulo - UNIFESP, who accepted to participate in the research and were able to read and write) and exclusion (patients with cognitive deficits, hospitalizations in the last 3 months, large surgeries in the last 6 months and treatment with immunosuppressants) free and clarified - TCLE and answered questions from the following questionnaires applied by interviewer: clinical questionnaire 1 (sex, age, time of diagnosis, drugs in use and glycemic control); Clinical questionnaire 2 (data taken from patients' charts, such as type of diabetes, chronic complications, presence of comorbidities, laboratory tests performed during treatment, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure. ) and WHOQOL-100.
WHOQOL-100 is a universal quality-of-life evaluation tool developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) quality of life group and adapted into Portuguese by the WHOQOL group in Brazil of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, which is based on the assumptions that quality of life is a subjective construct (perception of the individual in question), multidimensional and composed of positive and negative dimensions (WHO, 1998).
The WHOQOL-100 assesses quality of life in its general aspect and consists of one hundred questions pertaining to six domains: physical, psychological, level of independence, social relations, environment and spirituality / religiosity / personal beliefs. These domains are divided into 24 facets. Each facet is composed of four questions. In addition to the 24 specific facets, the instrument has a 25th series of general questions about quality of life. Responses to the WHOQOL-100 questions are given on a Likert scale. The questions are answered through four types of scales (depending on the content of the question): intensity, capacity, frequency and evaluation . It is an instrument of self-evaluation and self-explanatory, the interviewer can read the question slowly when the respondent cannot understand the question. The values obtained in the Cronbach coefficient for the questions or domains show a satisfactory internal consistency.
Data analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical program, when comparisons were made between the quality of life scores with appropriate tests (t test) and for position descriptive analysis (mean) and variability standard deviation), with a significant value equal to or less