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Journal of Endocrine Disorders & Surgery

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Molecular analyses of diabetes and its complications: A recent view

Author(s): Syed M Shahid

 Type I diabetes constitutes 5%-10% of subjects diagnosed with diabetes and is due to destruction of β cells of the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 80%-90% of diabetes in children and adolescents. According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the number of youth (0-14 years) diagnosed with type 1 diabetes worldwide in 2013 was 497100 and the number of newly diagnosed cases per year was 78900. These figures do not represent the total number of type 1 diabetes patients because of the high prevalence of type 1 diabetes in adolescence and adults above 14 years of age. One reported estimate of type 1 diabetes in the United States in 2010 was 3 million. The number of youth in the United States younger than 20 years with type 1 diabetes was estimated to be 166984 in the year 2009. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in the world is not known but in the United States in youth younger than 20 years was 1.93 per 1000 in 2009 (0.35-2.55 in different ethnic groups) with 2.6%-2.7% relative annual increase. Type 1 diabetes is mainly due to an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β cells through T-cell mediated inflammatory response (insulitis) as well as a humoral (B cell) response. The presence of autoantibodies against the pancreatic islet cells is the hallmark of type 1 diabetes, even though the role of these antibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease is not clear. These autoantibodies include islet cell auto-antibodies, and autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, GAD65), protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA2 and IA2β) and zinc transporter protein (ZnT8A). These pancreatic autoantibodies are characteristics of type 1 diabetes and could be detected in the serum of these patients months or years before the onset of the disease. Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes has strong HLA associations, with linkage to DR and DQ genes. HLA-DR/DQ alleles can be either predisposing or protective. This autoimmune type 1 diabetes is characterized by the absence of insulin secretion and is more dominant in children and adolescents.


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Citations : 59

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