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Cancer of the esophagus is the seventh most common malignant tumor in the world. The standard treatment for patients with advanced CE is systemic chemotherapy, but few effective cytotoxic drugs are available. Recently, nivolumab, a human monoclonal immunoglobulin G4 antibody that inhibits programmed cell death protein 1, has been tested for the treatment of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma. The ATTRACTION1 trial demonstrated that nivolumab monotherapy has a good effect in patients with advanced ESCC after prior chemotherapy.