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Recent research on the molecular and cellular foundation of learning and memory has gotten us closer than ever to figuring out how synaptic plasticity works and how it relates to memory formation. Because the same mutant mice may be analysed using molecular, cellular, circuit, and behavioural tools, genetic approaches have played a key role in these recent findings. As a result, the findings can be utilised to build models that span multiple levels of analytical complexity, bridging the gap between the the biochemistry of the cha- -nged protein and the behaviour of mutant mice. These discoveries not only improve our understanding of learning and memory, but they also help us Many cognitive and emotional functions in humans are expected to be influenced by mechanisms driving long-term alterations in synapse function. As a result, molecular and cellular insights into learning and memory will definitely have a significant impact on our knowledge and treatment of mental illnesses.better comprehend cognitive illnesses such neurofibromatosis type I.