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Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Research

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Robin Karli*
Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800, Australia, Email: [email protected]
*Correspondence: Robin Karli, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800, Australia, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Mar 01, 2021 / Accepted Date: Mar 16, 2021 / Published Date: Mar 23, 2021

This open-access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY-NC) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits reuse, distribution and reproduction of the article, provided that the original work is properly cited and the reuse is restricted to noncommercial purposes. For commercial reuse, contact [email protected]


In the treatment of addiction, medications are wanted to reduce the intensity of withdrawal symptoms, reduce alcohol and other drug craving and reduce the likelihood of use or relapse for specific drugs by blocking their effect. The primary goal of medication-assisted treatment is for the patient to achieve fully-sustained remission.

Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes. Among physicians, sometimes the term medical therapy refers specifically to pharmacotherapy as against surgical or other therapy; as an example, in oncology, medical oncology is thus distinguished from surgical oncology.

Pharmacists are experts in pharmacotherapy and are liable for ensuring the safe, appropriate, and economical use of pharmaceutical drugs. The skills required to function as a pharmacist require knowledge, training and knowledge in biomedical, pharmaceutical and clinical sciences. Pharmacology is that the science that aims to repeatedly improve pharmacotherapy. The pharmaceutical industry and academia use basic science, engineering and translational science to make new pharmaceutical drugs.

Drug Use

Response to a drug depends partly on the patient’s characteristics and behaviors (eg, consumption of foods or supplements; adherence to a dosing regimen; differences in metabolism because of age, sex, race, genetic polymorphisms, or hepatic or renal insufficiency), coexistence of other disorders, and use of other drugs. Drug errors (eg, prescribing an inappropriate drug, misreading a prescription, administering a drug incorrectly) also can affect response.

As pharmacotherapy specialists and pharmacists have responsibility for direct patient care, often functioning as a member of a multidisciplinary team, and acting because the primary source of drug-related information for other healthcare professionals. A pharmacotherapy specialist is a private who is specialized in administering and prescribing medication, and requires extensive academic knowledge in pharmacotherapy.

Pharmacotherapy is related to several diseases and disorders. The medication varies from one disease or disorder to the other. Pharmacotherapy is provided to diseases and disorders related to Cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, neurological, psychiatric, endocrinologic, gynecologic and obstetric, urological, immunologic, rheumatologic, ophthalmic, dermatologic, hematologic, infectious diseases, oncologic and nutritional disorders.

Selection of an Antidepressant Medication

The overall effectiveness of antidepressant medications is usually equivalent between and within classes of medicines. However, there are distinct differences in individual patient response to and side effects caused by the classes of medicines and individual agents. The genetic differences within the metabolism of certain medications including antidepressants are often determined by cytochrome P450 genetic testing. This testing may identify individual patients who could also be more sensitive to serious adverse reactions or medications with narrow therapeutic windows of specific medications.