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There is considerable debate regarding the most appropriate method of investigating female infertility. Ideally, the process should be diagnostically accurate and prognostically useful. It should be performed within an acceptable timeframe and be as minimally invasive as possible. It should also conform to the couple’s wishes. The present paper is a critical review of the investigative process as it pertains to ovarian, tubal and uterine factors. Advanced transvaginal ultrasound techniques play a pivotal role in the modern evaluation of female subfertility and may replace more traditional invasive procedures such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. A critical review of the essential components of female infertility investigation is presented.