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Journal of Pharmacology Research

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A comparative study of niacinamide and vildagliptin and their co-administration with metformin on fasting blood glucose levels in streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats

Author(s): Mukesh Kumar* and Umashanker Prasad Keshri

Background: This study was focused to determine efficacy of primarily dietary supplement like niacinamide when used alone in high or optimum doses or in co-administration with newer gliptins like vildagliptin and to compare with empirical noble antidiabetic drug; metformin.

Methods: Healthy male wistar rats weighing 150-250 grams were divided into seven groups, six animals in each group. These groups were normal control, diabetic control (placebo treated), metformin treated, vildagliptin treated, niacinamide (optimum and high doses) treated and vildagliptin and optimum dose of niacinamide (co-administered) treated groups of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by freshly prepared streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), 15-20 minutes pretreated with niacinamide (230 mg/kg), both by single intraperitoneal injection. The fasting blood samples were determined by glucose oxidase method. Simple line and bar graph were used to depict trends of FBS of different groups on day 0,7,14,21,28,35 and 42. One way ANOVA post-hoc (Tukey’s HSD) test was used to compare the effect of drugs on different group.

Results: FBS of Group A remained static throughout study. Increasing trend of FBS mean were noticed finally in group B and group F with 28.93% and 8.97% elevation respectively from initial reading. Maximum reduction in mean FBS values were noted in group C (52.58%) followed by group G (46.36%) and group D (42.94%) whereas small reduction of 10.85% was noted in group E. Group F showed initial reduction followed by progressive rise in FBS. Inter group comparison results of day 42 showed p-value ≥ 0.05 among metformin (group C), vildagliptin (group D) and co-administration of vildagliptin with optimum dose of niacinamide (group G). Rest of treatment groups were compared to each other to demonstrate p-value ≤ 0.001 or highly significant changes in mean FBS value on day 42.

Conclusion: Vildagliptin and its co-administration with optimum dose of niacinamide had more lowering of FBS as compared to vildagliptin alone. Optimum dose of niacinamide treatment caused lowering in blood sugar but high dose paradoxically raised FBS level of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

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