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Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Treatment

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Artificial intelligence: Neuroscience

Author(s): Vikrant Singh


Artificial intelligence (AI) and neurology have a long and interconnected history. Consequently, communication and collaboration between the two areas has become less widespread. The greater knowledge of biological brains could be critical in the development of intelligent technologies. The historical ties between AI and neuroscience studies, as well as present AI breakthroughs inspired by the study of brain computing in humans and other animals. Finally, we identify several common features that may be important for future investigation in both domains. In the domains of neuroscience and artificial intelligence, rapid progress has been made in recent times (AI). Work on AI was intrinsically linked to neurology and psychology at the start of the age of computers, and many of the original founders humped both fields, with cooperation across these fields proving extremely beneficial. However, as both disciplines have grown in sophistication and academic distinctions have hardened, the interplay has been far less prevalent in recent years. The advantages of closely investigating biological intelligence for AI development are twofold. First, neuroscience offers a rich resource of motivation for new types of algorithms and architectures that are both independently of and complimentary to the mathematical and reasoning concepts and techniques that have characterized traditional AI methodologies. Secondly, neuroscience can give verification for existing AI algorithms. If an established algorithm is later discovered to be implemented in the brain, this provides strong evidence for its plausibility as part of a larger general intelligence system.

Exploring the beginnings of two topics critical to present AI research, machine learning and supervised learning, both of which are based on neuroscience theories. We next move on to the present incarnation of AI research, highlighting a number of instances when concepts and findings from neuroscience have been used as inspiration (sometimes without explicit acknowledgement). We examine both at the most likely research difficulties and some developing neuroscience-inspired AI techniques to see how neuroscience may help future AI development. While our major focus will be on how neuroscience might improve AI, we will quickly examine how AI can help neuroscience and the larger potential for synergistic relationships among those two sciences in the concluding portions. Furthermore, these discoveries demonstrate the possibility for electrostatic effects between AI and neuroscience: studies targeted at developing physiologically acceptable forms of backpropagation were sparked by the quest for alternate classifiers. Aspects such as the accumulation of consecutive non-linearities provide issues for optimizing utilising backpropagation as deep networks (e.g., >20 layer) are increasingly used during AI research.

When planning for future collaboration among the two domains, it's vital to remember that neuroscience's achievements to AI have rarely consisted of a simple transferring of full-fledged ideas that might be dynamical response in machinery. Rather, neuroscience has indeed been valuable in a more subtle way; generating algorithmic-level concerns about aspects of animal learning and cognition that are of interest to AI researchers and generating early leads towards involve examination. As a result, we believe that harnessing insights from neuroscience research can speed up AI research, and that this will be particularly productive if AI investigators actively collaborate with neuroscientists to identify crucial questions that may be answered through empirical study. 

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