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Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology

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Assessment of heavy metals and their effects on quality of water of rivers of Uttar Pradesh, India: A review

Author(s): Gulrez Nizami* and Shifa Rehman

Uttar Pradesh the largest state of India is blessed with most holy and important rivers in its region but due to increased urbanization and industrialization these rivers are under intimidation of high-water pollution. The aim of the manuscript is to critically review the extent of heavy metal pollution in specific sites of five prominent rivers of state of Uttar Pradesh namely Ganga at Allahabad, Ganga at Varanasi, Gomti at Lucknow, Yamuna at Allahabad and Ramganga at Moradabad. The attempts have been made to determine the extent of water pollution in these rivers comparatively. The aim of the manuscript is to put forth a comparative overview of the state– of–the–art knowledge on the heavy metal pollution in these rivers. As per the study undertaken by several researchers, the levels of heavy metal viz. Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd at different sites in Ganga River, Varanasi reported to be highest. Similarly, the status of these metals, Mn Cr Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe concentrations in the Ganga River water various sites of Allahabad region found exceeding. Another very important river of UP, Yamuna at Allahabad is selected due to its high level of pollution. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu and As) concentrations were found high in water from River. The heavy metals concentration in water found that Pb and Cu were higher than the permissible limits of WHO, which is sign of hazard to the environmental health. In Gomti River at Lucknow the high traces of all the metals were obtained in water and deposit in rainy season compared to summer and winter due to the overflow from open polluted sites, agricultural fields and industries. The concentration of Zn was found more than the permissible limits. The river Ramganga an important tributary to the Ganga river is also facing excessive threat of pollution. The concentration of heavy metals showed increasing trends in summer compared to monsoon and winter period. The heavy metals contamination in all the five rivers was found to be influenced by mainly municipal and industrial waste of cities.

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