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Carbon compounds have a long history of synthesis and application, and carbon black, produced from fuel-rich incomplete combustion, has been used for ink, paints, and tattoos for over 3000 years. Since the discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, material science involving valuable carbon compounds has been a hot topic, with applications in carbon fixation, catalytic supports, adsorbents, gas storage, electrode, carbon fuel cells, and cell biology. Many synthetic methods for the manufacture of amorphous, carbonaceous, porous, or crystalline carbon materials with variable size, shape, and chemical compositions have been documented, including carbonization, high-voltage-arc electricity, laser ablation, or hydrothermal carbonization. In this Review, we'll look at a more sustainable technique that depends on low specific energy input and uses biomass instead of fossil-fuel-based starting materials. Because it is accessible in high quality and large quantities, as well as being an environmentally beneficial renewable resource, biomass is a qualified carbon raw material for the synthesis of valuable carbon compounds.