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More than three decades after the first case of AIDS was notified in Uganda, HIV pandemic continues to pose unprecedented challenges with latest Government estimates indicating 138,700 new cases, adding to the already 1.6 million people who are living with HIV in the country. The government response to containment and prevention of HIV/AIDS has been through the prevention and care programs initiated in 1986 and later the National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan through 2007/2008â2011/2012 cycles, with three service areas of prevention, care and treatment, and social support. Concerted efforts and scale up of care by the Ugandan Government and external donors led to a decline in HIV prevalence from 18% in 1992, to 6% by 2004/2005, making Uganda the most convincing success stories in combating the spread of HIV and reversing the trend of HIV epidemic. However recent upsurge of HIV prevalence in Uganda from 6.4% in 2004-2005, to 7.3% in 2011, especially among them who have multiple sexual partners and are more vulnerable to unprotected sex, like fisher folk, long-distance truck drivers and youth raises tremendous concerns.