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Japan represents less than 2% of the world population, yet its energy usage is nearly 5% of global consumption. As the third largest economy in the world, and a highly industrialized one, this is not surprising. What is surprising is how modest is the use of renewable energy. Prior to Fukushima, renewables represented only 5% of the total energy mix. And today, nearly ten years on, it represents only 8%. Given that Japan is highly dependent on imports of primary energy resources, the expectation is that renewables would be far more developed. It is after all the best way to ensure security of supply. What can explain this paradox? And does it reveal causes that can help us understand the obstacles to the proliferation of renewables in Japan?