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Journal of Materials Engineering and Applications

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Nanoscale Characterization of Phase Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys

Author(s): Osman Adiguzel

Shape memory effect is a peculiar property exhibited a series alloy systems in the β-phase fields. Shape memory alloys are sensitive to external condition and temperature, and crystal structure of these alloys change with changing temperature and stressing, by means of structural phase transformation, called martensitic transformations. Shape memory effect is treated thermally by means of thermal induced martensitic transformation, which occurs as martensite variants with lattice twinning in crystallographic or atomic scale, sub-nano scale, in materials on cooling below martensite finish temperature. Twinned martensite structures turn into detwinned martensite structure by means of stress induced martensitic transformation by stressing material in a strain limit in martensitic condition. Shape memory alloys are in the fully martensitic state below martensite finish temperature with fully twinned structure can be easily deformed through variant reorientation/detwinning process. Therefore, martensite is called soft phase and austenite is also called hard phase. Thermal induced martensitic transformation is lattice-distorting phase transformation and occurs as martensite variants with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of shear-like mechanism. Martensitic transformations occur by two or more lattice invariant shears on {110}- type planes of austenite matrix which is basal plane or stacking plane for martensite. In the martensitic transformation, the lattice of high temperature austenite phase has greater crystallographic symmetry than that of the low-temperature product phase. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable β-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high temperature parent phase field. Lattice invariant shears are not uniform in copper based shape memory alloys, and the ordered parent phase structures martensitically undergo the non-conventional complex layered structures on cooling. The long-period layered structures can be described by different unit cells as 3R, 9R or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. The close-packed planes, basal planes, exhibit high symmetry and short range order as parent phase.

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Citations : 30

Journal of Materials Engineering and Applications received 30 citations as per Google Scholar report