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One of the biggest hits of neonatology in recent years has been the progress made in the preterm newborn care, however, prematurity remains the main problem of contemporary neonatology. In premature infants, is of great importance, due to its morbidity, the group of ventilated infants. Ventilation has been a neonatal intensive care technology that has contributed to the decline in infant mortality, especially in very low birth weight infants. However, changes in long-term neurodevelopmental not descend. One possible explanation is that ventilator practices as useful when used in a proportionate and appropriate can damage the developing brain when used excessively (eg. hypocarbia, hyperoxia). So, the question is: what can we do to protect the developing brain?