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One of the main causes of high morbidity and death worldwide is cardiovascular disease (CVD). The lack of effectiveness of CVD prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options calls for innovative alternative approaches. In the field of CVDs, nanoscience and nanotechnology open up new doors for effective treatment, improved prognosis, and reduced side effects on tissues outside the target area. Due to the properties such as passive and active targeting to the cardiac tissues, improved target specificity, and sensitivity, the use of nanoparticles and nanocarriers in the field of cardiology has attracted significant attention. According to reports, nanotechnology can be used to successfully treat more than 50% of CVDs. This review summarizes the difficulties associated with the conventional treatment modalities in comparison to the nanomedicine for CVDs.