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Journal of Skin

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Eyayou Girma1*, Chuchu Churko2, Amsalu Alagaw2, Desta Haftu2, Abayneh Tunje2 and Behailu Tsegaye1
1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia, Email: samigirma02@gmail.com
2 Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
*Correspondence: Eyayou Girma, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia, Email: samigirma02@gmail.com

Received: 08-Sep-2021 Accepted Date: Sep 22, 2021; Published: 29-Sep-2021

Citation: Girma E, Churko C, Alagaw A, et al. Prevalence of scabies and its associated factors among school-age children in Arba Minch Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia, 2018. J Skin. 202 8 1;5(5):1-8.

This open-access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY-NC) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits reuse, distribution and reproduction of the article, provided that the original work is properly cited and the reuse is restricted to noncommercial purposes. For commercial reuse, contact reprints@pulsus.com


Background: Scabies, a common human skin disease with a prevalence range of 0.2% to 71.4% in the world. It can have a considerable impact on general health leading to illness and death not only through the direct effect of its infestation and as a result of secondary bacterial infection. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its associated factors among school-age children in Arba Minch Zuria district, Gamo zone, Southern Ethiopia.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 825 school-age children from February 20 to March 30, 2018. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select study populations. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with scabies. Findings were presented using 95% CI of Crude Odds Ratios (COR) and Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR). To declare statistical significance, a p-value of less than 0.05 was used.

Results: A total of 825 children participated in the study with a response rate of 97.6%. The overall prevalence of scabies was 16.4% [95% CI: 13.9%, 18.9%]. Overcrowding index, family history of itching in the past two weeks, wealth index, knowledge of scabies, climatic zone (living in the highland area), frequency of washing body, frequency of washing clothes, fingernails cutting practice, history of skin contact with scabies patient, washing hair more than once weekly, and sharing of clothes were significantly associated scabies disease.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of scabies in Arba Minch lies at 16.4% in the global scabies range from 0.2% to 71.4%. The prevalence was highest in highlands followed by midland and then lowland. This represents a significant scabies burden which we recommend warrants health service intervention.


Scabies; School-age children; Arba Minch Zuria woreda


The skin is the largest body organ and is a sensitive indicator of a child’s general health. Skin disorders are the most common health problems among children. Skin disorder may cause emotional and psychological stress for the child and family [1]. Scabies is a contagious skin infestation caused by the parasite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is the most common ectoparasitic dermatosis seen in clinical practices [2].

The International Alliance for the Control of Scabies, a newly formed organization, proposes to achieve scabies control in vulnerable communities in 2013 [3]. Recently in the tenth strategic and technical advisory group for neglected tropical diseases World Health Organization (WHO) added scabies to the list of “Neglected Tropical Diseases”, thereby recognizing its impact on human health [4].

Ethiopia has been affected by natural disasters such as the El Niño weather phenomenon, leading to severe drought and scabies outbreaks [5]. The country faced a scabies outbreak in many parts of the region due to this weather event [5]. Ethiopia has developed a guideline to assist with control and to attempt to prevent scabies outbreaks in response to these outbreaks. The recommended interventions include Health, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH), and communication for development. Considering scabies as the water washed disease, the key intervention is the provision of access to sufficient safe water for personal hygiene: washing of clothing, washing of body using soaps especially the affected areas, appropriate hand washing at critical times, clothing or bedding that were used by an infected individual during and before effective treatment should be dried for 3 days in the sun to allow time for mites and eggs to die. The communication strategies for the prevention of scabies need integrated and multi-level interventions comprising advocacy, social mobilization, social and behavioral change communication at different levels and capacities should be provided in Ethiopia [6].

Scabies is a common problem in school-age children and there is a limited study done on scabies in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its associated factors among school-age children in Arba Minch zuria district, Gamo zone Southern Ethiopia.

Materials and Methods

Study area and period

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1-30, 2018 in Arba Minch Zuria district, Gamo Gofa Zone. The district is located 505 kilometers south of Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia and the district has 29 kebeles. According to the central statistical agency of Ethiopia in 2007 the total population of the district was 165,680 of which 82,751 were males and 82,929 were females. The district has 7 health centers and 40 health posts.


The source populations were all children aged 5-14 years in the selected rural kebeles who fulfill selection criteria during the study period. All children aged 5 to 14 years in the selected kebeles were included in the study, and children who were severely ill excluded from the study.

Sample size and sampling

The sample size was determined using single population proportion formula with the assumption of 95 % confidence interval (CI), by taking prevalence of scabies 50%, design effect [DE]=2, a none response rate of 10%. The final, the calculated sample size was 845. The study participants were recruited using a multi-stage sampling technique. First based on their climatic zone kebeles were stratified into three. Then kebeles were selected randomly by using the lottery method from each stratum. Sampling frame obtained from the woreda education office for each kebele. Then the sample was allocated by proportionate allocation for all selected kebeles.

By using simple random sampling the first household was chosen by the direction of the pen point as a starting point. If in case more than one eligible respondent was found in the household, only one respondent was chosen by the lottery method.

Data collection

Socio-demographic characteristics and associated risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire by trained health care providers who were BSc degree holders. A structured questionnaire was used to interview parents and children in their homes. Physical examination was undertaken on respondents who had an itchy vesicular skin rash, burrows, papules, and nodules by trained BSc nurses. The diagnosis was ascertained, based on the Mali clinical algorithm [7]. A skin scraping was not feasible in this setting.

Operational definitions

Scabies: In this study scabies is defined as the presence of persistent pruritic rash with itching increasing at night which are notified at least at two specific body sites (on the wrist, sides and web spaces of the fingers, the axillae, periareolar, per umbilical, genitalia area, abdomen, and buttock areas) with or without a history of pruritus in the close entourage [7].

Good knowledge: Those mother/caregiver who answered above the mean of the knowledge questions.

Poor knowledge: Those mother/caregiver who answered below the mean of the knowledge questions.

School-age children: Children who were in the age group 5-14 years old [8].

Infrequent bathing – Showering frequency less than once per week in the past month [9].

Infrequent washing clothes – Washing clothes less than once per week in the past month [9].

Infrequent changing clothes – Changing clothes less than once per week in the past month [9].

Overcrowding index: Was calculated by dividing the number of usual residents in a house by the number of bedrooms in the house. If it is more than 1.5, then it is overcrowded and if it is less than or equal to 1.5, then it is not overcrowded [10].

Data quality control

To ensure the quality of data, a questionnaire was prepared in the English language, translated to Amharic, and re-translated back to English by another person who can speak both languages. To make sure that the questionnaire is appropriate and understandable; it was pre-tested on 5% of the sample size. The training was given for supervisors and data collectors for one day. Regular supervision was carried out during the data collection period’. ‘Collected data were checked for completeness and consistency daily.

Data analysis

Epi info version 7 was used for entering, coding, cleaning the collected data that were analyzed using SPSS version 20. In the univariate analysis, descriptive statistics were conducted to explore frequency distribution, central tendency, variability (dispersion), and overall distribution of independent variables. Bivariate analysis was done to determine the associations between each independent variable and outcome variable. All associated factors with a p-value of less than 0.25 during bivariate analysis and biologically plausible factors were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was used to see the strength of the association between different variables. P-value and 95% confidence interval (CI) for odds ratio (OR) were used in deciding the significance of the associations. The wealth index was calculated by using the principal component analysis method (PCA) and constructed as lowest, second, middle, fourth, and highest.


Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents

A total of 825 (response rate of 97.6%) school-age children participated in the study. Of the total children, 53.2% (439/825) were men. Four hundred fifty- three 54.9% of the children were in the age group between 10-14 years old. The majority 81.6% (673/825) of the study subjects attended school whereas 18.4% (152/825) did not. The majority 91.3% of the respondents were Gamo ethnic group, 5.6% were Wolayta, 1.8% Amhara and the rest 1.3% others. More than half (60.1%) was a follower of Protestant Christianity, followed by Orthodox Christianity is38.8% and 1.1% others. Regarding family education, 50.0% of the mothers had no formal education, 44.2% had primary education, and 5.8% had secondary and higher educational levels. 43.9% of children’s father had no formal education, 41.1% had attended primary education and 15% had secondary and higher educational status. The majority 92.6% (764/825) of children’s mothers interviewed in this study was housewives, 5.8% were merchants, and 1.6% employed Gov’t/NGO. On the other hand, 91.6% (756/825) of the children’s father’s farmer, 6.3% (52/825), and 2.1% (17/825) were Merchant and employed respectively (Table 1).

Socio-demographic variables    Category Number Percent (%)
Sex of the children male 439 53.2
female 386 46.8
Age group 5-9 years 372 45.1
10-14 years 453 54.9
Children attending school Yes 673 81.6
No 152 18.4
Ethnicity Gamo 753 91.3
Wolayta 46 5.6
Amhara 15 1.8
Others* 11 1.3
Religion Protestant 496 60.1
Orthodox 320 38.8
Others** 9 1.1
Family educations Childs mother No formal education 412 50
Primary education 365 44.2
Secondary and above 48 5.8
Childs father No formal education 362 43.9
Primary education 339 41.1
Secondary and above 124 15
Occupational status of family Childs mother Housewife 764 92.6
Merchant 48 5.8
Employed Govt/NGO 13 1.6
Childs father Farmer 756 91.6
Merchant 52 6.3
Employed Govt/NGO 17 2.1
Climatic zone Lowland 325 39.4
Mid land 416 50.4
High land 84 10.2
Wealth Index 1 156 18.9
2 178 21.5
3 158 19.2
4 163 19.8
5 170 20.6

Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics of the study subjects in Arba Minch zuria district, SNNPR, 2018; N= 825.

Prevalence of scabies among school-age children

The overall prevalence of scabies among school-age children 16.4% (135/825) [95% CI: 13.9%, 18.9%] scabies cases were identified. Out of which 45 (13.8%) [95%CI: 10.05%, 17.55%] were found in lowland, 65 (15.6%) [12.11%, 19.09%] in midland and 25 (29.8%) [95%CI: 20.019%, 39.58%] found in highland area. The prevalence of scabies among females was higher than male children, 17.1% and 15.7% respectively (Figures 1 and 2).

Figure 1) Distribution of prevalence of scabies by sex among school age children in Arba Minch zuria district, 2018.

Figure 2) Distribution of scabies by climatic zone in the study area, 2018.

Home environment-related factor

More than three-quarters of the sample, 638/825 (77.3%) had a family size of greater than or equal to five, and only 187/825 (22.7%) had less than five family members with the mean family size of 6 and standard deviation 1.95. 80.2% (662/825) of the children share a bed with others whereas 19.8% (163/825) did not share their bed with other family members. From those families who had animals in their home, 366/825 (55.5%) of the children look animals and 294/825 (44.5%) did not deal with animals in their homes. 474/825 (57.5%), 239/825 (28.9%), and 112/825 (13.6%) of the respondents use electricity, kerosene light, and solar light in their home respectively. Majority 561 (68%) of the respondent’s house was covered by an iron sheet and 264 (32%) did not. Almost all 815 (98.8%) of the family was living in a house built by soft bricks and 10 (1.2%) living in a hard brick.

The majority of 586/825 (71%) of the respondents use river/pond as a source of water for personal hygiene, 136/825 (16.5%) use pipe/tap water and the rest 103/825 (12.5%) use well/spring water in the study area. Regarding knowledge 636/825 (77.1%) of the family had good knowledge about scabies and 189/825 (22.9%) had poor knowledge. About 747 (90.5%) had a water source near their home <30 minutes and 78 (9.5%) had a water source far away from home (Table 2).

Variables Category Frequency Percentages
Family size <5 187 22.7
>=5 638 77.3
Bed sharing Yes 662 80.2
No 163 19.8
Dealing with animals Yes 366 55.5
No 294 44.5
Type of light Kerosene 239 28.9
Solar 112 13.6
Electricity 474 57.5
House type iron sheet covered Yes 561 68
No 264 32
Type of house built by Soft bricks 815 98.8
Hard bricks 10 1.2
Source of water for personal hygiene Pipe/tap water 136 16.5
Well/spring 103 12.5
River/pond 586 71
Knowledge status Good 636 77.1
Poor 189 22.9
Distance of water source from home Near home/<=30 minute 747 90.5
Far away from home>30 minute 78 9.5

Table 2: Home environment factors of the respondents in the study area, 2018; N= 825.

Regarding personal hygiene, 85.8% (708/825) of the respondents wash their body frequently and 14.2% (117/825) had responded that they wash their body infrequently. The majority 80.2% (662/825) of the participants wash their clothes frequently, 19.8% (163/825) wash their clothes infrequently. More than three quarters 83.5% (689/825) of the respondents changed into clean clothes frequently whereas the rest 16.5% (136/825) changed clothes infrequently. 56.7% (468/825), 280/825 (34%), and 77/825 (9.3%) of the children wash their hair 1-7 days, 7-14 days, and more than 14 days respectively. 627/825 (76%) of the children share their clothes with any other person whereas 198/825 (24%) did not share their clothes. About 563 (68.2%) of the children cut their fingernails short/trimmed and 262/825 (31.8%) did not (Table 3).

Variables Category Frequency Percentages
Body washing Frequently 708 85.8
Infrequently 117 14.2
Washing clothes Frequently 662 80.2
Infrequently 163 19.8
Changing of clothes Frequently 689 83.5
Infrequently 136 16.5
Frequency of hair washing 1-7 days 468 56.7
7-14 days 280 34
>14 days 77 9.3
Share clothes with other Yes 198 24
No 627 76
Fingernails cut short/trimmed Yes 563 68.2
No 262 31.8

Table 3: Personal hygiene and sanitation characteristics of the respondents, 2018; N= 825.

Knowledge about scabies among children’s family

From the total respondents, 805/825 [97.6%] knew the signs and symptoms of scabies, and 78.7% knew parts of the body that are affected by scabies as finger webs, armpits, genitalia, abdomen, breast, waist and knees, 143/825 [17.3%] knew that scabies affects parts of body that are mostly covered and 33 [4%] said it affects mostly at genitalia area.

Regarding respondent’s knowledge about transmission, 545/825 [66.1%] knew scabies transmitted through skin to skin contact and infected fomites like clothing, bed linen, 213 [25.8%] through the skin to skin contact only, and 67 [8.1%] through fomites (Table 4 and Figure 3).

Variables Categories Frequency % [percentage]
Ever heard about scabies Yes 788 95.5
No 37 4.5
Etiology of the disease Parasite 23 2.80%
Germs 246 29.8
The effect of scratching 556 67.40%
Signs and symptoms of scabies Itchy skin rash worsens at night 805 97.6
Don’t know 20 2.4
Parts of the body that are affected by scabies Finger webs, armpits, genitalia, buttocks, abdomen, breast, knees 649 78.70%
Parts that are mostly covered 143 17.30%
Mostly at genitalia 33 4%
Transmission way Skin to skin contact and through contaminated fomites 545 66.10%
Through skin contact only 213 25.80%
Through fomites only 67 8.10%
Sufferer from scabies All age group but mostly teenagers 571 69.2
Teenagers only 126 15.3
Only in a certain age groups 128 15.5
Exchanging clothes spread scabies Yes 604 73.2
No 221 26.8
Scabies be harmful to the health of the skin Yes 714 86.5
No 111 13.5
Scabies patient need to be quarantined No just need regular treatment simultaneous 570 69.1
Just keep distant from scabies patient 180 21.8
Need regular treatment only 75 9.1
Ways to break the chain of scabies transmission Disinfect fomites and give treatment 454 55%
Keep distant from scabies patient 125 15.20%
Need regular treatment only 246 29.80%
Drying mattress and pillows prevent scabies Yes 462 56%
No 363 44%
Prevention measure     for scabies Frequent bathing and avoid physical contact with scabies patient 439 53.20%
Frequent bathing and cleanliness of clothes only 239 29%
Keep fomites from contamination only 147 17.80%

Table 4: Knowledge of respondents about scabies infection in the study area, 2018; N= 825.

Figure 3) Objectively observed body sites affected by scabies rash among children diagnosed scabies infection in the study area, 2018; N=135.

Factors associated with scabies disease

Overcrowding index more than 1.5 [AOR=5.433, 95%CI: 2.264, 13.04] were 5 times more likely to have scabies than whose overcrowding index less than or equals to 1.5. Those children whose family member or entourage complaining of itchy skin rash in the past two weeks [AOR=6.99, 95%CI: 2.81, 17.406] were 7 times high risk of getting scabies when compared to no complaining in the family about itching. Families who had fourth wealth quintile (AOR=5.542, 95%CI: 1.402, 12.91) were 5.5 times more likely to have scabies when compared to the wealth quintile highest. Children whose family had poor knowledge about scabies [AOR=5.2, 95% CI: 2.188, 12.358] were 5 more likely to be affected by scabies disease than those whose family had good knowledge. This study also revealed that children who were living in the lowland [AOR= 0.306, 95%CI=0.109, 0.588] 69.4% reduced risk for scabies when compared to highland whereas children who were living in midlands [AOR=0.053, 95%CI: 0.012, 0.24] were 94.7% less prone to scabies as compared to children living in highlands.

Those children who wash their clothes infrequently were 3.5 times higher risk of getting sick by scabies when compared to those children washing their clothes frequently [AOR=3.53, 95%CI: 1.454, 8.566]. Children who wash their body infrequently had 6 times more prone to scabies than children who frequently wash their body [AOR=6.321, 95%CI: 2.312, 17.284]. This study identified that children who share their clothes with others were 6 times more likely to develop scabies than children who did not share clothes [AOR=6.013, 95%CI: 2.51, 14.4].

This study identified that children who had a history of contact were 10 times more prone to scabies than those who did not have contact history(AOR=9.579, 95% CI: 4.03, 17.22). Those children who wash their hair 7- 14 days and >14 days (AOR=7.118, 95%CI: 2.63, 19.268) (AOR= 5.11, 95%CI: 1.38, 18.899) were 7 and 5 times more likely to be affected than those children who wash hair 1-7 days respectively. Children who did not cut their finger short/trimmed were 7.6 times more prone to scabies when compared to children who cut short/trimmed (AOR=7.6, 95%CI: 3.169, 18.245) (Table 5).

Variables Categories Scabies COR [95% CI] AOR [95%CI]
Yes No Total
Overcrowding Index <=1.5 42[8.1%] 476[91.9%] 518 1  
>1.5 93[30.3%] 214[69.7%] 307 4.925[3.306, 7.336] 5.433[2.264,13.04]***
Fingernails cut short/trimmed Yes 24[4.3%]     539[95.7%] 563 1  
No 111[42.4%] 151[57.6%] 262 16.509[10.249, 26.592] 7.6[3.169, 18.245]*
Family member/entourage complaining of itching in the past two weeks Yes 83[45.4%] 100[54.6%] 183 9.417[6.273, 14.138] 6.99[2.81,17.406]***
No 52[8.1%] 590[91.9%] 642 1  
Knowledge status Good knowledge 48[17.5%] 588[92.5%] 636 1  
Poor knowledge 87[46%] 102[54%] 189 10.449[6.932, 15.749] 5.20[2.188,12.358]***
Have you infected by scabies before? Yes 24[50%] 24[50%] 48 6[3.292, 10.937] 0.921[0.17, 2.314]
No 111[14.3%] 666[85.7%] 777 1  
Climatic zone Lowland 45[13.8%] 280[86.2%] 325 0.379[0.216, 0.667] 0.306[0.109, 0.588]**
Midland 65[15.6%] 351[84.4%] 416 0.437[0.255, 0.748] 0.053[0.012, 0.24]***
Highland 25[29.8%] 59[70.2%] 84 1 1
Sharing of bed with others Yes 122[18.5%] 540[81.6%] 662 2.607[1.431, 4.749] 0.954[0.251, 3.635]
No 13[7.9%] 150[92%] 163 1 1
How often did the child change clean clothes Frequently 77[11.5%] 590[88.5%] 712 1 1
Infrequently 58[36.7%] 100[63.3%] 113 4.444[2.975, 6.639] 0.567[0.174, 1.849]
How often did you wash your clothes Frequently 43[6.5%] 619[93.5] 662 1  
Infrequently 92[56.4%] 71[43.6%] 163 18.653[12.043, 28.890] 3.53[1.454, 8.566]*
How often did you wash your body Frequently 61[8.6%] 647[91.4%] 708 1  
Infrequently 74[63.2%] 43[36.8%] 117 18.253[11.541, 28.869] 6.321[2.312,17.284]**
Sharing of clothes No 33[5.1%] 608[94.9%] 641 1 1
Yes 102[55.4%] 82[44.6%] 184 22.918[14.537, 36.131] 6.013[2.51, 14.4]***
Distance to fetch water Near home 100[13.4%] 647[86.6%] 747 1 1
Far away 35[44.9%] 43[55.1%] 78 5.266[3.215, 8.626] 3.106[0.674, 14.313]
History of contact with scabies patient No 18[3.1%] 561[96.9%] 579 1 1
Yes 117[47.6%] 129[52.4%] 246 28.267[13.307, 48.114] 9.579[4.03, 17.22]***
How often did you wash hair 1-7 day 17[3.6%] 451[65.4%] 468 1 1
7-14 day 81[28.9%] 199[71.1%] 280 10.798[6.237, 18.694] 7.118[2.63, 19.268]**
>14 day 37[48.1%] 40[51.9%] 77 24.54[12.695, 47.434] 5.11[1.38, 18.899]**
Wealth Index 1 27[17.3%] 129[82.7%] 156 1.408[0.765, 2.592] 0.571[0.146, 2.237]
2 23[12.9%] 155[87.1%] 178 0.998[0.534, 1.868] 2.01[0.457, 8.87]
3 25[15.8%] 133[84.2%] 158 1.265[0.681, 2.348] 1.48[0.36, 6.072]
4 38[23.3%] 125[76.7%] 163 2.045[1.149, 3.64] 5.542[1.402, 12.9]*
5 22[12.9%] 148[87.1%] 170 1 1

Table 5: Multivariable logistic regression analysis of factors associated with scabies among school-age children in Arba Minch zuria district, 2018; N= 825.


This study was held to assess the prevalence of scabies and to determine possible risk factors among school-age children. Scabies affects children’s life such as reducing school attendance due to severe itching. Secondary bacterial complications were another problem that affects scabies patients. This study showed that the overall prevalence of scabies was 16.4%. It is comparable with a study conducted in India wardha district 18% and with a report from Cameroon 17.8% [11]. However, it is much lower than the study done at West Bengal India, and Pakistan with a prevalence of 42% and 47.6% respectively [12,13]. This study also revealed that the prevalence is lower from the study done in Vanuatu, Solomon Island, Sierra Leon displacement camp, and Malaysian welfare home with a prevalence of 24%, 25%, 86%, and 31% respectively [9,12-14]. This difference might be due to the difference in socio-economic characteristics between the study areas. The climatic condition was significantly associated with scabies infection. This finding was consistent with the study done in Iran and by Hosseini-Shokouh et al. [15,16]. This might be due to weather change or reduced atmospheric temperature (increased humidity) in the highland area lead to reduce the frequency of bathing of their clothes as well as their body; whereas in the lowland area, people frequently washes their body and clothes due to hot weather condition. This allows the mites do not transmit to others.

Evidence suggests that overcrowding was one of the main risk factors for scabies infection in different parts of the world including Ethiopia [17-21]. This study also revealed that the overcrowding index was positively associated with scabies. This might be due to frequent body contact with scabies patients and the sharing of clothes in the family.

A study conducted in Cameroon boarding school reported that scabies had no statistically significant association with fingernails cut short [22]. In contrast, this study revealed that children who did not cut their fingernails short/trimmed were significantly related to scabies infestation. This might be explained by fingernails that can hold scabies parasites and transmit scabies disease.

This study showed that children with other family members reporting itchy skin are more prone to scabies infection as the family members highly likely to have scabies.

This finding similar to a study done in Egypt [10], and Tigray regional and SNNPR Ethiopia [23,24]. This might be due to frequent and prolonged body contact between family members sufficient to pass the mites into other skin.

The present study revealed that children’s families who had poor knowledge about scabies were at higher risk of acquiring scabies than those families who had good knowledge. This was in line with a study done in Cempaka District Banjarbaru South Kalimantan [25], and in Ethiopia [17]. This might be because families who knew about the disease take care of the children and themselves from the disease as well as be treated immediately.

Regarding personal hygiene, findings from this study revealed that washing hair more than seven days, infrequent washing of clothes, and infrequent washing of body was positively associated with scabies. It was true for a study conducted in Pakistan, Brazil, Egypt, Amhara, and Tigray region in Ethiopia; they reported that there was a significant association between the factors and scabies [17,23,26-29]. The reason might be the respondents had less awareness about the importance of personal hygiene and poor personal hygiene might be a risk factor for the spread of scabies mites.

This study also revealed that children who shared their clothes were statistically significantly associated with a scabies infestation. This finding was consistent with the study done in Doga-Tembi district Tigray [23], Gojjam Amhara region [17], and Egypt [10]. This might due to scabies mites can stay out of human skin for up to 48 hours, physical transmission of the female mites through fomites like clothes possible. Children who had a history of contact with scabies patients in the past two months were 10 times more likely higher when compared to no history of contact. This might be explained by scabies was one of communicable disease which can be transmitted through physical body contact from the infected person to other healthy person. Regarding wealth index, those children families who were the highest wealth quintile had a reduced risk of scabies disease. This might be due to those family who are the highest wealth quintile had good personal hygiene practices like wearing clean clothes, not sharing clothes.

This study further revealed that all children diagnosed scabies had itchy skin rash worsen at night. Body parts affected by scabies were finger webs and ulnar area, auxiliary area, genitalia, on the abdomen, on the shoulder blades, on the elbow, on the buttocks, and the lower legs. In this study, the seasonal variation of the diseases and the confirmatory diagnosis was not addressed.


In this study, the prevalence of scabies was high among school-age children. Most of the children diagnosed as scabies were living in the highland area followed by midland and then lowland. Overcrowding index, knowledge status of families, family member complaining of itching in the past two weeks, washing hair more than a week, wealth index, infrequent washing of clothes, infrequent washing of the body, history of contact with scabies patient, washing hair more than seven days and sharing of clothes were factors associated with scabies.


Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 7

Journal of Skin received 7 citations as per Google Scholar report