44 2033180199
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
International Journal of Anatomical Variations

Sign up for email alert when new content gets added: Sign up

Xiphoid Size and Gender Differences: An Anatomical Study

Author(s): Alexander Manché*, Carmel Grima and Liberato Camilleri

Background: Several studies have documented anatomical variations of the sternum. Because of its central role as an anchor of various abdominal muscles we have investigated a possible correlation between xiphoid length and body habitus indices, in both males and females.

Method: Measurements of sternal length were obtained prior to median sternotomy during cardiac surgery. Body Surface Area (BSA) was calculated from height and weight, using standard tables. A xiphoid 1cm or less in length was considered vestigial.

Results: The xiphoid was significantly longer in males. There was a positive significant correlation between xiphoid length and patient height and BSA in males, but not in females. Vestigial xiphoid was significantly commoner in females.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a marked gender difference in xiphoid morphology, with proportional scaling only exhibited in males. The absence of this scaling in females suggests an alternative mechanism behind vestigial xiphoid.

Full-Text | PDF