44 2033180199
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Wuhan National Center of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 43007, China


  • Original Article   
    Möbius and simple loop strips as 2D topological spacetime structures of preonic fermions and bosons
    Author(s): Jau Tang*, Brian Tang and Qiang Tang

    This work presents a model to treat the relativistic quantum dynamics of particles in a 2D Minkowski spacetime. Using independent 2x2 real-value matrices to represent a time-shift operator E, a space-shift operator P, and a mass operator M, we first derive and show these exist only two types of operator equations, representing a bosonic preon for the symmetric type-I case with commutative E and P, and a fermionic preon for the anti-symmetric type-II case with an anti-commutative relation. We illustrate their topological differences and show that the wave during propagation of the type-II preon as a Weyl-fermion exhibits a twist like a Mobius strip. In contrast, the type-I bosonic preon behaves like a simple loop strip without a twist. We have also examined the case with a rest mass for a 2D particle and a Dirac particle in 4D. Unlike the conventional string theories, our model consist.. Read More»
    DOI: 10.37532.2023.6.3.1-8

Journal of Modern and Applied Physics peer review process verified at publons