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Objective: To perform a narrative review about operative site infection and its prevention. Methodology: Non-systematic review of the literature. Results: Surgical site infection is the second most common type of health care–associated infection and increases hospital morbidity and mortality. It is defined as the infection that affects the surgical incision area or its deep tissue in the first 30 days after surgery and when a prosthesis or implant is used, this time extends up to one year. The most common pathogen in surgical site infections is Staphylococcus aureus. Its prevention depends on hospital and pre-hospital interventions (MRSA screening, smoking cessation, bowel preparations, glucose control, skin preparation, antibiotic prophylaxis, among others). Conclusion: The prevention of surgical site infection is an important objective in health care.