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A chromosome is a molecule of DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid), that contains some or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes contain packaging proteins that bind and condense the DNA molecule to prevent chaperone proteins from becoming an unmanageable tangle. Chromosomes normally only visible under an electron microscope if the cell is subjected to a metaphase of cell division (in which all chromosomes are placed in their condensed form in the middle of the cell Before this happens, each chromosome is copied once (S phase) and the replication is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting in either an X-shaped structure. If the centromere is located in the centre of the chromosome or a two-arm arrangement, whether it is located at one end. The main chromosome, and the duplicate, is now named sister chromatids.

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