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Applied Food Science Journal

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Bill Smith*
 
Editorial Office, Applied Food Science Journal, United Kingdom, Email: foodsci@pulsusinc.com
 
*Correspondence: Bill Smith, Editorial Office, Applied Food Science Journal, United Kingdom, Email: foodsci@pulsusinc.com

Received: 02-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. pulafsj-22-3932; Editor assigned: 04-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. pulafsj-22-3932(PQ); Reviewed: 13-Mar-2022 QC No. pulafsj-22-3932(Q); Revised: 21-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. pulafsj-22-3932(R); Published: 25-Mar-2022, DOI: 10.37532/pulafsj.22.6(2).19-20

This open-access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY-NC) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits reuse, distribution and reproduction of the article, provided that the original work is properly cited and the reuse is restricted to noncommercial purposes. For commercial reuse, contact reprints@pulsus.com

Abstract

Biotechnology is giving us a plethora of possibilities for how to use agricultural and commercial forestry areas. The growth of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of land, followed by their introduction into our food chain, is a massive global genetic experiment involving all living species. Given the rapid rate of new developments in genetically modified crop production, consumers, farmers, and governments around the world are challenged to reach an agreement on a clear vision for the future of global food supply.

Introduction

The current food biotechnology debate highlights a serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who see agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortages, scarcity of environmental resources, and weed and pest infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers, and consumers who warn that genetically modified food poses new risks to food security, the environment, and human health. This article examines important points of view that are now being argued in the global food biotechnology sector. It also lays the groundwork for a thorough discussion of the benefits and risks of biotech crops on human health, ecosystems, and biodiversity. In this context, while some regulations exist, all countries involved in the production of genetically engineered food must maintain constant vigilance to follow international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release tracking of transgenic plants in order to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

GMOs are created by adding a gene from an unrelated species into a gene from an external source, such as viruses, bacteria, animals, or plants. Biotechnology has enabled us to bypass insurmountable physiological barriers and interchange genetic materials amongst all living organism.

The application of recombinant DNA technology has the potential to enable the production of a human-desired and created organism. GMO (Genetically Modified Food) refers to any food that contains or is derived from a genetically altered organism. Describing biotechnology processes is beyond the scope of this text; however, it is useful to mention a few of the widely utilised ways in generating GM crops: Agrobacterium was used as an intermediary organism in the transfer of a desirable gene into plants. This has shown to be a successful way of tree and cereal crop alteration. Biolistic transformation is a physical way of bombarding genes of interest into plant cells, and DNA-coated beads are typically utilised as carriers.

Electroporation is another technology that aids in the incorporation of genes into the host genome. This approach is appropriate for plant tissues that lack cell walls. DNA penetrates plant cells through minute pores that are created briefly by electromagnetic pulses. Microscopic crystals can also form these holes. Microinjection, which is the direct delivery of DNA into the genome, is another recent approach. Antisense technology is also beneficial for deactivating certain genes, such as those responsible for fruit softening and battling plant virus infections.

Favorite DNA is currently introduced into a small number of treated cells using currently available procedures. As a result, in order to determine whether the gene has been incorporated into the cell, the required DNA is usually connected to a marker gene before being transferred. Researchers can use these flag genes to determine whether or not the intended DNA was properly transferred. However, following successful gene transfer, crucial criteria that have sparked arguments about the safety of GM crops are genotypic and phenotypic stability, as well as the persistence of inheritance.

Much of the current discussion over agricultural biotechnology has centred on the possible consequences of genetically modified (GM) crops to human health. Antibiotic resistance, allergenicity, nutritional alterations, and the development of toxins are some of the health hazards associated with unapproved GMFs. To address the potential downsides of biotechnology use in altered foods, we highlight some of the issues caused by genetic modification approaches. GE techniques have been utilised to transfer single gene characteristics from soil microorganisms into plant cells, such as herbicide resistance. Recent research in higher eukaryotic cells, however, has revealed that genes do not work independently of one another. It has been established, for example, that the human genome is not simply a collection of independent genes. Genes are dynamic rather than constant and unchanging, operating in an interactive system and interconnected with one another. Furthermore, proteins do not function in isolation; rather, they interact in network systems. Gene characteristics function in the cell through intercommunication and reciprocity. As a result, one gene may not determine a single feature, such as herbicide tolerance or pest resistance.

To create a GM crop, a vector is used to insert the desired gene into the crop's genome. This vector could also incorporate viral promoters, transcription terminators, antibiotic resistance, and marker genes. The genes that have been inserted into a genome can live anywhere, produce mutations in the host genome, and move or rearrange after insertion or in subsequent generations. Transgenic DNA may break up and reintegrate into the genome again (recombination), causing chromosomal rearrangement in subsequent generations and potentially changing transgenic crops to produce allergenic or other health concerns.

Taking everything into account, GM crops are living; they can migrate and expand globally. In this sense, unambiguous signals should be issued to biotech businesses to proceed with prudence in order to minimise inadvertent harm to human health and the environment. Consumers are widely thought to have the right to demand mandated labelling of GM food products, independent testing for safety and environmental implications, and accountability for any damage caused by GM crops. We are aware that many regulatory laws already exist for risk assessments that are performed on three levels of impacts on agriculture (gene flow, reducing biodiversity), food and food safety (allergenicity, toxicity), and the environment (including non-target organisms). At the same time, the Cartagena Protocol has created laws and guidelines and has required countries and companies to follow them for the production, handling, and consumption of GM materials in recent years. We have not discussed the regulatory problems involved in the manufacture of GMFs in this article. However, we are confident that interested readers will follow the debates on GMFs and related regulatory concerns in the next years.

 
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Citations : 13

Applied Food Science Journal received 13 citations as per Google Scholar report

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